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Fungal Diseases

Apple Scab
Bacterial Speck
Black Knot of Cherry 
Black Spot
Blossom End Rot

Botrytis Blight
Bronze Leaf Disease of Aspen
Clematis Wilt
Cytosporo Canker
Dog Vomit Slime Mold
Entosporium Leaf Spot
Fairy Ring
Fireblight
Hollow Heart of Potato
Juniper Hawthorne Rust
Late Blight of Potato
Late Blight of Tomato
Leaf Spot on Roses
Lilac Blight
Needle Cast
Oak Leaf Blister
Peony Botrytis Blight
Potato Scab
Powdery Mildew
Premature Fruit Drop
Raspberry Blight - Spur
Raspberry Virus
Red Leaf Rhubarb Disease
Russet on Apple
Rust
Saskatoon Juniper Rust
Shot Hole
Sirococcus Tip Blight
Slime Flux/Westwood
Slime Mold
Snow Mold
Sunscald on Raspberry
Vascular Damage on Mountain Ash
Verticillium Wilt
Water Core

 
 
 
 
 
 
Apple Scab

Plants Affected - Apple Trees

Symptoms - Scabs on fruit, foliage damage mistaken for fireblight.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Rake up leaves and discard fruit.

Controls - Chemical - Only used commercially in orchards.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Bacterial Speck

Plants affected - Tomatoes

Symptoms:

  • Disease initiates on green fruit
  • Fruit lesions are small (< 2 mm, 1/12 in. in diame-ter), black, slightly raised and often surrounded by a narrow green-to-yellow halo
  • Speck lesions on the fruit are usually superficial and can be scraped off (specks don’t go deep into fruit).
  • Lesions also occur on stems and flower buds
  • Severe infections may cause defoliation

Cause - Abundant rainfall and high humidity create perfect environment for disease.

Cultural Control - Can’t control a wet, cool season but if disease does occur, ensure any plant debris is cleaned up and discarded in fall.


 

Black Knot on Cherry

Plants Affected - Schubert Chokecherry, Mayday (Prunus)

Symptoms - Initially, new knots start out as branch swelling. Large black ‘knots’ appear on branches the following year.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Prune out knots, clean pruners with bleach/alcohol after every cut.

Controls - Chemical - None


 
 
 
 
 
 
Black Spot

Plants Affected - Most varieties of roses.

Symptoms - Round black spots form on leaves, stems and leaf stalks. Plants will most likely not be killed but can be severely stressed.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Affected leaves or sections can be pruned out and discarded.  DO NOT COMPOST. Good fall clean is essential so last years infected leaves don’t infect next years leaves.

Controls - Chemical - Garden Sulphur


 
 
 
 
 
 
Blossom End Rot

Plants affected - Tomatoes, Peppers, Zucchini, Cucumber

Symptoms - Water soaked spots turn into mushy lesions on the blossom end of the fruit

Life Cycle - Spread by fungal spores in cool rainy weather

Cultural Control - Affects plants with inconsistent moisture and lack of calcium - water the same time daily (unless raining) and feed plants with high calcium such as Turf Rev Off the Vine.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Botrytis Blight

Symptom - Plants wilt when fungus enters stems at soil level:gray mold is sometimes seen. Disease can attack fruit or vegetables such as beans. For fungus on strawberry mulch placed on ground around plant can reduce infection.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Ensure watering is done first thing in the morning. Keep plants pruned to promote proper air flow. Prune out and discard any badly affected portions to prevent further spread.

Controls - Chemical - No chemicals available at this time.


Bronze Leaf Disease of Aspen

Plants Affected - Towering poplars and Columnar Aspens (Trembling Aspens)

Symptoms - First appear in mid summer leaves forming yellowish, orange brown or reddish brown discoloration near leaf margins. Discolored areas expand to cover the whole leaf except for the veins. As discoloration spreads, it turns bronze in color. Branch die back can occur as disease spreads.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Remove infected branches and leaves, disinfect pruners after each cut. Good fall clean up is recommended. If any infected leaves or branches are on the tree in the fall remove them.

Controls - Chemical- There are none as disease is too new and is currently under study.


Clematis Wilt

Plants Affected - Clematis

Symptoms - Clematis wilt shows up as sections or the whole plant wilting and collapsing.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Cut down affected stems to ground level. Plant at proper depth for hybrid types, to give vines extra support; plant so top of rootball is 4"" deeper than soil surface. Plant in well drained soil fortified with lots of organic material. Keep plants properly staked etc to avoid damage to the stems; be careful when cultivating around plants.

Controls - Chemical - No chemical controls are available.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Cytospora Canker

Plants affected - Evergreens

Symptoms:

  • Needles start of yellow, in summer turn purple.
  • During periods of wetness, gelatinous threads can be seen.
  • Cankers form with sunken ridges, girdle branches, cause dieback.

Life Cycle - Secondary fungal disease—moves in on sun scalded wood, stressed trees.

Cultural Control:

  • Pruning
  • Keep trees healthy and well watered

Chemical Control - None


 

Dog Vomit Slime Mold

Plants Affected - Mulches

Symptoms - Yellow to brown foam jelly like substance found on the surface of mulch beds.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Remove with a shovel and discard.

Controls - Chemical - None


Entosporium Leaf Spot

Plants affected - Saskatoon

Symptoms:

  • Fungus overwinters on leaf debris. In wet weather spores are spread.
  • Small angular brown spots on leaves, often with a yellow halo or margin around spots
  • Heavy spotting can cause dark brown spots on fruit

Control:

  • Thorough leaf cleanup in fall
  • Preventative sprays of copper fungicide.


Fairy Ring

Plants Affected - Lawn

Symptoms - Large circles form when fungus uses lawn as a food source.  Mushrooms may be seen—are fruiting spores of the fungus.  DO NOT confuse these with common mushrooms that appear after heavy rains.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Ensure a healthy lawn to fight off fungus - regular fertilizing and deep watering. Spike area with pitchfork, soak with soapy water - this ensures the lawn gets hydrated (fungus creates a thick band, making it difficult for water to reach lawn). Dig out ring (must dig 18” on either side of ring, and take caution not to get infected soil on lawn.

Controls - Chemical - No fungicides available


 
 
 
 
 
 
Fireblight

Plants Affected - Rose family - apple, crabapple, pear, mountain ash, cotoneaster

Symptoms - Dramatic wilting at tips of new growth—shepherd’s crook. Scorched appearance of leaves and clear, amber liquid may be seen oozing from plant.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Prune out affected branches 10” below infected area.  Disinfect tools in bleach between EVERY cut.

Controls - Chemical - Copper or sulphur—spray on plant in mid-June—this acts as a preventative.  Sprays do not offer control once bacteria is present.


Hollow Heart of Potato

Plants Affected - Potatoes

Symptoms:

  • Occurs when growing conditions abruptly change—tubers grow rapidly due to stress, causing the pith to die or pull apart.
  • Affects appearance, but potatoes are still edible.

Cultural Control - Ensure even moisture is maintained, especially when tubers are forming.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Juniper Hawthorn Rust

Plants Affected - Juniper/Cedars, and Hawthorn, Crabapple, Apple, Mountain Ash

Symptoms - Galls form on juniper/cedar leaves. After spring rains, galls ooze gelatinous ‘spore horns’. On alternate hosts (hawthorn, etc.), yellow-orange spots show, later become orange-yellow surrounded by red bands.  These will then release spores in June/July, infecting junipers/cedars in the area.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Eliminate a host (note: neighbours could still have one of the hosts). Prune out juniper galls in late winter/early spring before spore horns emerge.

Controls - Chemical - Copper fungicide (Bordo) should be sprayed on Hawthorns and other alternate hosts foliage as plants start to bloom, then repeated twice at 7-10 day intervals.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Late Blight of Potato

Symptoms:

  • Light to dark green water soaked spots appear on leaves, stems. They are irregular and not contained by leaf veins.
  • Later darken to brown, and are surrounded by yellow halo.
  • Brown to black lesions on stems.
  • Tubers will have red brown discoloration just be-neath surface.

Life Cycle - Overwinters in infected tubers left above or below ground.

Cultural Control - Eliminate all tubers from field after frost.

Chemical Control:

  • Spray alternate fungicides (fungicides with different active ingredients) at 7-10 day intervals once leaves are 8-10” high.
  • Copper, Sulphur

 
 
 
 
 
 
Late Blight of Tomato

Symptom:

  • Light to dark green water soaked spots appear on leaves, stems. They are irregular and not contained by leaf veins.
  • Later darken to brown, and are surrounded by yellow halo.
  • Brown to black lesions on stems.
  • Fruit has dark, firm lesions randomly on fruit; these can have a copper or bronze finish to them.

Cultural Control:

  • Crop rotation of minimum 6 years.
  • Plant resistant varieties; most often these are cherry tomatoes.

Chemical Control:

  • Spray alternate fungicides (fungicides with different active ingredients) at 7-10 day intervals once leaves are 8-10” high.
  • Copper, Sulphur

Leaf Spot on Roses

Plants affected - Roses
 
Symptoms - Black spots appear on upper leaf surfaces, leaves eventually drop
 
Life Cycle:

  • Overwinters in diseased canes and leaf debris beneath plants
  • In spring, spores are spread by splashing water/rain. Fungal spores require 7 hours of moisture for infection to occur. Once infection occurs black spots start to develop.

Cultural Control:

  • Remove diseased leaves
  • Prune roses to ensure good air circulation, do not water foliage (water base of plant)

Chemical Control - Bio Fungicide, Copper, Sulphur applied as preventative every 7-10 days


Lilac Blight

Plants affected:

  • Lilacs
  • Blueberry bushes
  • Maple trees

Symptoms:

  • Early spring foliage curls up/twists
  • Brown spots with yellow halos
  • Infected leaves and flower buds emerge and quickly turn black and die.

Life Cycle:

  • Bacteria overwinters on leaf debris and in the soil
  • Emerges in the spring when weather is cool and rainy

Cultural Control - Good fall clean up of all leaf debris

Chemical Control - Copper spray in spring


 

 

 

 

Needle Cast

Plants Affected - Spruce trees

Symptoms - Mimics winter injury. Starts as light green to yellow spots, which turns to brown or red. Black spores will be seen on needles prior to drop (early spring).

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Keep trees healthy and well watered.

Controls - Chemical - None


Oak Leaf Blister

Plants Affected - Oak

Symptoms - Slight yellowing of leaf surface followed by raised blisters. Tree may prematurely defoliate in late summer.

Life Cycle - Fungus overwinters on bud scales and in bark crevices.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Lime Sulphur applied to bark crevices and bud scales in fall or spring

Controls - Chemical - None available


Peony Botrytis Blight

Plants affected - Peony

Symptom:

  • Begins early in the spring when the shoots are about six inches tall. Young stalks discolor at the base, wilt, and fall over. This wilt and shoot death may continue throughout the summer if conditions are wet.
  • Other symptoms during the growing season include large, irregularly shaped spots on leaves and brown flower buds that are cov-ered with a mass of gray, fuzzy fungal spores.

Cultural Control:

  • Promptly remove affected plant material.
  • Spray peonies with a preventative spray of copper in early spring when shoots are about 6-8” tall

Potato Scab

Symptoms - Tan to dark brown scabs/lesions on tubers. Is only aesthetic—tubers are edible!

Life Cycle:

  • A bacteria that is usually introduced into soil via infected tubers.
  • Most severe in warm, quick drying soils, at a high pH soil range, add in soils high in organic matter

Cultural Controls:

  • Plant certified stock.
  • Rotate potato crops every 3-4 years.
  • Ensure consistent moisture as tubers are forming
  • Ammend soil with Turf Revolution pH decreaser—note that this is slow to take effect.

Chemical Controls - None


 
 
 
 

 

 
Powdery Mildew

Plants Affected - Many perennials and annuals, popular hosts include garden phlox, speedwell, salvia, begonias, impatiens.

Symptoms - White powdery spots, yellowing leaves. Plants cannot manufacture as much food as they need - severe infestations will kill plants such as begonia.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Good circulation, full sun. Clean up debris in fall.

Controls - Chemical - Sulphur or Bio-Fungicide - apply in mid-June as a preventative; if mildew is already present use Bio-Fungicide.


Premature Fruit Drop

Plants affected:

  • Currant
  • Evans Cherry

Symptoms - Fruit forms but is easily knocked off/falls from plants. Occurs most often when there is a period of drought/excess moisture and/or cold temperatures when buds are first forming (about two weeks prior to blooming)

NO CONTROL AVAILABLE, WEATHER RELATED


 

Raspberry Blight - Spur

Plants affected - Raspberry

Symptoms:

  • Edge of older leaves have V shaped lesions. Advances to mid veins then to the leaf axil where new growth oc-curs.
  • Lowest leaves affected first, then moves upwards.

Life Cycle - Primary spores (ascospores) are discharged from May to August. Inoculum comes only from old fruiting canes. Secondary spores (conidia) are also produced. Conidia splashed about in July/August probably cause the most damage.

Cultural Control - Provide good spacing between rows

Chemical Control - Apply preventative applications of Serenade or Copper starting in mid to late June every 10 days


 
 
 
 
 
 
Raspberry Virus

Plants affected - Raspberry

Symptoms:

  • Purple spots with grey-white centres form on new canes, leaves. Spots enlarge to form sunken pits. On second-year canes lesions can coalesce into cankers that girdle the cane.
  • Fruit symptoms include shrunken brown druplets or withered, dry seedy fruit.

Life Cycle - Ascospores are rain-splashed and air-borne from infect-ed canes in early spring. Conidia are rain-splashed from overwintering infected canes in the spring and through-out the summer to new growth. Infection requires three to twelve hours of wetness; only very young green tissue is infected.

Cultural Control - Prune out damaged canes

Chemical Control - Apply preventative applications of Serenade or Copper starting in mid to late June every 10 days.


Red Leaf Rhubarb Disease

Plants affected - Rhubarb

Symptoms:

  • Redleaf first appears as small, greenish-yellow areas on the upper surface of the leaves. These change to circular or some-what angular-shaped spots having white centres with wide, reddish margins.
  • In severe cases, the red colour becomes very prominent so that the plant soon loses vigour and leaves droop to the ground. Eventually, the crown will die, usually into the second or third season after infection occurs

Life Cycle - Disease is passed by aphids feeding on infected plants and transferring to other plants.

Cultural Control - To control leaf spot, remove all infected leaves during the growing season and de-stroy by burning or burial. If symptoms continue to appear, dig up the crown and burn or bury all infected tissue.


Russet on Apple

Plants affected - Apples

Symptoms - Rough, leathery streaks or patches on apples - may cover just top or entire apple.

This is not a disease at all - though the skin appears marred, Russet is actually a characteristic trait of several tasty apple varieties. Many Russet varieties have been removed from the commercial market because of the skin - however they are among some of the best tasting apples.


 

 

 

 


Rust

Plants Affected - Perennials, roses

Symptoms - Reddish orange spots on leaves and stems. Wilting and defoliation follows.

Controls - Cultural or Non-Chemical - Prune out, good fall cleanup.

Controls - Chemical - Sulphur – important to apply prior to rust appearing (start applying in mid-June).  Fungicides are not highly effective once rust is seen.


Saskatoon Juniper Rust

Plants affected - Saskatoon

Symptoms:

  • infected leaves and berries develop yellowish-orange spots
  • later in season, spots may be covered with spiny projections (like whiskers)
  • leaf can tolerate large quantities of spots, but one spot ruins the berry
  • Two hosts; overwinters on Juniper plants.

Control:

  • Preventative sprays of copper fungicide.
  • Remove junipers growing nearby.

Shot Hole

Plants affected - Many—especially Prunus

Symptoms - ‘shot holes’ on leaves

Life Cycle - Overwinters in leaf debris – is caused by both a bacteria and fungus.

Cultural Control - Good fall cleanup

Chemical Control - Copper fungicide in spring as preventative mid June.


 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Sirococcus Tip Blight

Plants affected - Spruce (Colorado, white, Norway) and Pine (Mugo, Scots, Jack)

Symptoms:

  • Browning, wilting, curling of young shoots, most often on lower growth.
  • Infected shoots have a hooked appearance and eventually lose all needles.
  • Small purplish cankers may appear on current year growth.

Life Cycle - Overwinters on infected plant material, cool wet springs facilitate the spread of the disease onto new or current year’s growth.

Cultural Controls - Remove and destroy affected needles/shoots on a regular basis.

Chemical Controls - Copper spray starting mid June at 10 day intervals.


 
 
 
 
 
 
Slime Flux/Westwood

Plants Affected- Poplar/Elm

Symptoms:

  • Smells like methane
  • Infection starts in canopy
  • Bacteria oozes out at weak point

Life Cycle - Caused by soil borne bacteria

Cultural Control - None

Chemical Control - None



Slime Mold

Plants Affected - Lawn

Symptoms - Masses of individual spores lined up along each blade of grass (blackish/grey). Occurs in periods of warm, wet weather.

Controls - Cultural - Rinse away spores, hand rake area for circulation.

Controls - Chemical - If problem is significant, spray with fungicide such as Serenade



Snow Mold

Plants Affected - Lawn

Symptoms – White cottony growth on lawn in spring (usually after winters with heavy snow cover)

Controls – Rake away cottony growth


Sunscald on Raspberry

Plants affected - Raspberry, Blackberry

Symptoms:

  • Otherwise known as white drupelet disorder. White or tan spots appear on individual drupelets on fruit.
  • Fruit exposed to hot, dry winds for extended periods of time.
  • Fruit is still edible.

Control - If weather is unusually hot along with dry winds plants can be overhead watered in afternoons to help cool plants off.


Vascular Damage on Mountain Ash

Plants affected - Mountain ash show here, but can affect others that cannot tolerate excess moisture as well.

Symptom - Browning of leaf margins.

Life Cycle - Note this can be a fungal disease however can also be direct damage to the tree’s vascular system due to excess moisture affecting the root system.

Cultural Control - No more water!


 
 
 
 
 
 
Verticillium Wilt

Plants affected - Many tree and shrub species including Elder.

Symptom:

  • Caused by soil borne fungi. Mid Summer, leaves turn yellow at margins then brown and dry. Sudden wilting on one or several branches may occur.
  • Frequently the foliage on only one side of tree wilts.
  • Wood under bark of affected branches is discoloured in streaks. Affected plant may die in one season or after several seasons.

Life Cycle - Fungi remain in soil for several years, attack root system of plant.

Cultural Control:

  • Do not replant susceptible species in same spot. See Listing.
  • Prune out affected limbs and fertilize to maintain vigour.

Chemical Control - None available

Verticillium wilt susceptible plants
Ash
Box Elder
Buckeye
Cherry and other Prunus
Currant
Elm
Honeysuckle
Horse Chestnut
Lilac
Maple
Rose
Russian Olive
Serviceberry
Sumac
Viburnum
Weigela

Verticillium wilt resistant plants
Apple
Birch
Crabapple
Dogwood
Fir
Hawthorn
Juniper
Larch
Linden
Mountain Ash
Oak
Pear
Pine
Spruce
Willow
Yew


 
 
 
 
 
 
Water Core

Plants affected - Apple

Symptoms:

  • Water soaked areas occur around the core of the apple; in severe cases the exterior will show damage.
  • Occurs when heat and sunlight are intense when fruits are approaching maturity.

Cultural Control - If intense heat and sunlight are occurring during maturation, pick fruit so water core doesn’t develop.